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SARDIS


SARDIS
Photo Information
Copyright: Burak Oktenli (burak28) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 1234 W: 91 N: 1268] (16810)
Genre: Places
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2007-08-20
Categories: Architecture
Camera: Sony Cybershot DSC-S730
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Theme(s): Ancient civilizations, Historical Buildings [view contributor(s)]
Date Submitted: 2008-10-28 0:26
Viewed: 1672
Points: 48
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
SARDIS

The earliest reference to Sardis is in the The Persians of Aeschylus (472 BC); in the Iliad the name Hyde seems to be given to the city of the Maeonian (i.e. Lydian) chiefs, and in later times Hyde was said to be the older name of Sardis, or the name of its citadel. It is, however, more probable that Sardis was not the original capital of the Maeonians, but that it became so amid the changes which produced the powerful Lydian empire of the 8th century BC.
The city was captured by the Cimmerians in the 7th century, by the Persians and by the Athenians in the 6th, and by Antiochus III the Great at the end of the 3rd century. In the Persian era Sardis was conquered by Cyrus the Great and formed the end station for the Persian Royal Road which began in Persepolis, capital of Persia. During the Ionian Revolt, the Athenians burnt down the city. Sardis remained under Persian domination until it surrendered to Alexander the Great in 334 B.C..
Once at least, under the emperor Tiberius, in 17 AD, it was destroyed by an earthquake; but it was always rebuilt. It was one of the great cities of western Asia Minor until the later Byzantine period.
The early Lydian kingdom was far advanced in the industrial arts and Sardis was the chief seat of its manufactures. The most important of these trades was the manufacture and dyeing of delicate woolen stuffs and carpets. The stream Pactolus which flowed through the market-place "carried golden sands" in early antiquity, in reality gold dust out of Mt. Tmolus; later, trade and the organization of commerce continued to be sources of great wealth. After Constantinople became the capital of the East, a new road system grew up connecting the provinces with the capital. Sardis then lay rather apart from the great lines of communication and lost some of its importance. It still, however, retained its titular supremacy and continued to be the seat of the metropolitan bishop of the province of Lydia, formed in 295 AD. It is enumerated as third, after Ephesus and Smyrna, in the list of cities of the Thracesion thema given by Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the 10th century; but over the next four centuries it is in the shadow of the provinces of Magnesia and Sipylum and Philadelphia, which retained their importance in the region.
After 1071AD The Hermus valley began to suffer from the inroads of the Seljuk Turks but the successes of the general Philokales in 1118AD relieved the district and the ability of the Comneni dynasty together with the gradual decay of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum retained it under Byzantine dominion. When Constantinople was taken by the Venetians and Franks in 1204AD Sardis came under the rule of the Byzantine Empire of Nicea. However once the Byzantines retook Constantinople in 1261AD Sardis and Asia Minor was neglected and the region eventually fell under the control of Ghazi (Ghazw) clans, the Cayster valleys and a fort on the citadel of Sardis was handed over to them by treaty in 1306AD. The city continued its decline until its capture (and probable destruction) by the Mongol warlord Timur in 1402AD.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sardes

La première mention écrite de la ville se trouve dans les Perses d’Eschyle. La fameuse Hydé (Ὕδη) d’Homère, citée dans l'Iliade comme la capitale des Méoniens, est peut-être Sardes.
La construction de la citadelle est attribuée au roi Mélès, qui y aurait placé son palais et son trésor, fortement fortifiés. De l’autre côté du Pactole se développe la ville basse, moins bien protégée, qui subit les assauts des Cimmériens en -652, puis des Perses. Après la chute de l’Empire lydien au VIe siècle avant notre ère, la citadelle de Sardes résiste encore et n’est prise par Cyrus le Grand que par surprise, en -546. Sardes devient alors la capitale de la satrapie de Lydie. Pendant la révolte des cités ioniennes, la ville basse est de nouveau détruite. En -334, la ville est prise par Alexandre le Grand, puis convoitée par les diadoques. Sous domination séleucide jusqu’en -190, elle est ensuite annexée par Pergame. Son importance décroît alors au détriment de Pergame. Prise par les Romains en -133, elle est détruite en 17 de notre ère par un tremblement de terre. Tibère la fait alors rebâtir, et Hadrien l’embellit.
À l’époque chrétienne, elle est l’une des sept églises citées par le livre de l’Apocalypse. L’adresse à l’Église de Sardes, au troisième verset, est une mise en garde contre la vie facile : « Sois vigilant, et affermis ce qui reste, qui s’en va mourir, car je n’ai pas trouvé tes œuvres parfaites devant mon Dieu » (trad. de John Nelson Darby).
Après la mise en place d’un nouveau réseau routier, après que Constantinople est devenue capitale de l’Empire romain d'orient, Sardes est à l’écart des routes principales, et entre en déclin. Elle reste néanmoins importante symboliquement, étant depuis 295 le siège métropolitain de la province de Sardes. Au Xe siècle, Constantin VII Porphyrogénète la place au troisième rang du thema (province) de Thrace, après Éphèse et Smyrne.
En 1306, la ville est cédée aux Seldjoukides, dont les incursions dans la région remontent au XIe siècle. En 1402, elle est totalement détruite par Tamerlan.

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Shadows 34%
Accents 100%
Brightness +5
Contrast +10
Saturation -11

boreocypriensis, hay_kes, harrisonford, tatarovisk, mvdisco, adriana, milas, tanburi, Teresat, ayse51, norenastramus, cunejo200, Fortuna, avesta, black_dream has marked this note useful
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Discussions
ThreadThread Starter Messages Updated
To Teresat: Thanksburak28 1 10-29 00:47
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Critiques [Translate]

Merhaba Burak,
Harika bir mimari çalışma.Perspektif ve simetri şahane.Tebrikler,

hAyAti

Sevgili Burak muhteşem. Doytmuş renkler ile etkileyici bir perspektif çalışması. Değerli bilgiler ile de ülkemiz değerlerinin tanıtımına önemli bir katkı.
Tebrik ediyorum.
Ellerine sağlık.
Bayram

  • Great 
  • AndroK Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor [C: 2110 W: 41 N: 0] (15189)
  • [2008-10-28 0:51]

Merhaba my friend...
Beautiful postcard...
Beautiful old architecture...
Regards...
Andro

Hi Burak
a good shot of this historic site. well composed in a wide perspective.
wonderful architecture.
in my opinion the beautiful blue sky is in unnatural tone, but that's ok for a postcard.
greetings
tsilla

Hello Burak! Very interesting architecture. Good POV and capture. Very good sharpness. Well done!

Hello Burak
Good take
Good POV
good colour
Henry

  • Great 
  • nicou Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 2777 W: 0 N: 5194] (50772)
  • [2008-10-28 2:46]

Hello,

Quel beau cadrage sur cette citadelle, les couleurs sont amngigique, , de très beaux contrastes, superbe.

Bravo et amitié

Nicou

Bom dia Burak!

Really beautiful architecture. Your perspective is also very good.
Like the details and the blue ky, congratulations my friend.

Selamlar.
Marco

Bonjour Burak,
WoW! great city and great picture of the ruine of Sardis, very nice note in French and beautiful picture nicely composed and presented, great colors and sharpness, Excellent POV. and details.
All my compliments.
Michel

Merhaba Burak
Good shot
Good arquitecture
I almost understand all comments.
Best Regards
Adriana

  • Great 
  • milas Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 2841 W: 398 N: 3076] (34114)
  • [2008-10-28 7:31]

merhaba burak...
harika bir kadraj ve detay...güzel bir çalışma eline sağlık..selamlar

Selam Burak,
Sartın en görkemli görünümlerinden biri.
Simetri ve ışık başarılı olkarak vurgulanmış
Tebrikler
Selahattin E

B0a tarde B.O
Great capture and great prespective of this amazing architecture. The note is superb. A beautiful real for today: thanks
My regards
Teresat

Merhaba Burak,
Muhteşem arkeolojik değeri olan bir tarhi yapının
güzel sunumu. Eline sağlık. GÖzlerinden öpüyorum.
Dr.Seyfettin Güner

  • Great 
  • ayse51 Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 2092 W: 144 N: 2110] (27563)
  • [2008-10-28 10:48]

Merhaba Burak'cım,
bence Sart'ın en güzel fotğraflarından biri.Muhteşem olmuş.Ellerine sağlık.Necla.

Merhaba Burak,
Renkler,gökyüzünün mavisi,ışık,gölge hepsi çok güzel,
Harika detaylar ve tanıtım karesi.
Ellerine saglık,
Selamlar
H.Ayhan

  • Great 
  • mbrito Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 1929 W: 117 N: 3017] (13240)
  • [2008-10-28 14:39]

Hello Burak,
Great POV, and a composition very well done; by effect of the saturation of coloursa is seems almost a graphic work, very «eye catching».
Best regards, mb

Merhaba Burak,
The ruin is beautifully restored. Architectural details and the blue sky are pleasant. My compliments. Danilo

  • Great 
  • k-2 Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 605 W: 26 N: 503] (3638)
  • [2008-10-28 18:27]

Hi Burak. You post almost every day. When do you find the time after work. Nice straight on view here. The colours suggest that it is actually hot while you took this photo. TFS. Karin

  • Great 
  • lele Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 796 W: 48 N: 1708] (11179)
  • [2008-10-29 1:26]

ciao burak...bellissimo lavoro
luce molto interessante..ottimi i colori e bellissimo soggetto..grande composizione buoni i dettagli
complimenti
lele

Merhaba Burak, great view of wonderful architecture with fantastic colors, excellent sharpness and splendid perspective, very well done, ciao Silvio

Merhaba Burak,
Very nice shot. Very good POV. Nice light and colours. Perfect capture, well done & TFS.
Cheers
Atri

Merhaba Burak,

Excellent photograph with great POV!
Wonderful colors and perfect lightness and bright.
Congratulations and TFS.
Selamlar
Sergio

Wonderful composition with vivid, warm colors, Burak! A very well chosen example of ancient classic beauty!
Very well done my friend!
Diana

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