River Life Portrait
|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
|Many people live their whole life on the water. This man is one of these folk. Borneo's rivers are often large and deep and are the main way to move around this facinating island, the world's third largest.|
Borneo's early history is obscure, but inscriptions at Kutei, dating from about ad400, show the first traces of Indian influence. The Sumatra-based kingdom of Sri Vijaya long exerted influence over the western coastal regions, and in the 14th century the Majapahit Empire of Java claimed control of Banjarmasin and much of southern Borneo (see Majapahit, Kingdom of; Sri Vijaya, Kingdom of). The Muslim sultanate of Brunei, founded in the late 15th century, dominated northern Borneo and the Sulu Archipelago during the following century.
From the 17th to the 19th century, the British and Dutch made sporadic attempts to control the island's trade, particularly in pepper. In the mid-18th century, Chinese immigrants established gold-mining communities in western Borneo, but the settlements were destroyed by the Dutch in 1854. Many of the Chinese then turned to agriculture and trade. During the 19th century the Dutch imposed treaties on some south- and west-coast rulers who ceded vast territories to them, but Dutch authority in the interior was minimal.
British traders established footholds along the northern coast, most of which was under the Brunei sultanate. When a British adventurer, James Brooke, assisted the sultan in suppressing a rebellion in 1841, the sultan granted him the title of raja and the Sarawak district of Brunei. Brooke asserted Sarawak's independence in 1853, and he and his heir extended the state's borders at Brunei's expense. From 1881 a company chartered by the British crown administered North Borneo (now Sabah), which in 1888, along with Brunei and Sarawak, was made a British protectorate. The Japanese occupied much of Borneo from 1942 to 1945, after which all three protectorates were made British crown colonies. The Dutch transferred sovereignty of the southern regions (Kalimantan) to Indonesia at the end of 1949.
In 1963 Sarawak and Sabah merged with peninsular Malaya to form the Federation of Malaysia, but the sultanate of Brunei remained a British protectorate. Indonesia initially opposed Malaysia's formation and supported guerrilla attacks into Sarawak and Sabah until 1966, when it accepted the new federation. In keeping with agreements negotiated between Brunei and the United Kingdom in the late 1970s, Brunei became fully independent as of January 1, 1984.
bombilla, pablominto, Freddie, yanm, Refugee has marked this note useful
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Beautiful portrait. He brought his own frame. You know, it's strange though, because if you hadn't told us he was in a boat on the river, who would have known? -Hugh
Great capture, Murray! An excellent composition, and a touching portrait. Well done!
This is a strong composition, with an educational note!
Well composed presentation with good lines...
Interesting and original portrait!
I forgot... This is your image #200, that is quite a milestone, congrats!
A very amiable countenance well captured! Nice colors & lines!
- [2007-01-31 3:35]
Did you have a boat as their full house as well ?? very good use of window as the frame of him
Belle composition avec ces lignes diagonales et ces couleurs.
Bien vu et bien réalisé.
Lovely portrait Murray with excellent information in the notes. The cahp has been well framed by his 'porthole'. Good colour and light and well composed. TFS,
Many thanks for your comment on ‘Tasmanian Sunsets I’
hi excelent pic..
i have a very very similar one in north east india i have not uploaded it as yet i think i should.. u have done so much traveling but y not india as yet.. u are most welcome to india.. if u ever need any help here let me know..